Oenothera biennis
common evening primrose

Oenothera biennis
Oenothera biennis
Wiki Commons, GNU
Britton & Brown
Botanical name: Oenothera biennis
Common name: common evening primrose
Group: dicot
Family: Onagraceae
Growth type: forb/herb
Duration: biennial
Origin: native
Plant height: 1 - 6'
Foliage: leaves alternate, narrowly oval or oblong, stalkless or short-stalk, wavy edged or slightly toothed
Flower: yellow, on terminal spikes, 1-2", petals broad, usually indented on the tip
Flowering time: June - September
Habitat: roadsides, fields, weedy places
Range in New Jersey: statewide
Heritage ranking, if any: n/a
Misc. Flowers partly close during the day, wide open at twilight. Moth pollinated as a result of nectar guides, which are ultraviolet patterns generally invisible to humans but visible to pollinators.

Hummingbirds obtain nectar from the flowers, and the seed capsules are food for a variety of birds during the winter.

Previously split into several varieties based on pubescence, as the pubescence on the stem and flowers varies, but now generally treated as one species.

Cultural: The seeds contain gamma-linolenic acid which is sometimes used to reduce PMS symptoms, treat upset stomach, eczema, and for respiratory infections. Native cultures ate the boiled root.